Ideas are the building blocks of knowledge and of inference.
Idea is defined as the intellectual “image” or representation of a thing. It is the same as the concept in the mind. The term idea comes from the original Greek which means image. As applied to the idea, the term image be taken metaphorically, in an analogous sense.
The idea is an abstract representation of things, and may be expressed or defined by meaningful terms.
Example: an igorot may intellectually identify and distinguish a watch from other objects; but if he does not know what it is for, or does not know that it is a mechanical device for telling time, he has no idea of it.
1. IDEA AND PHANTASM
The idea must be carefully distinguish from the phantasm.
Phantasm is a sensible image existing in the imagination, which is one of the internal sense – faculties located in the brain. It is defined as the sensible representation of the material features of a thing, usually a kind of pictorial image, bearing a shape or figure.
The idea is the meaning of the phantasm. In our present condition a phantasm usually accompanies the idea. It helps fixate our thoughts.
In the case of the abstract things, as democracy, rights, science, unity, etc., the idea is accompanied by the respective term in the imagination. Oftentimes, however, we create new phantasms and literary expressions to respond to our new ideas.
The chief differences between IDEA and PHANTASM are:
ü Found in the intellect
ü Possible of complex and immaterial things
ü Found in the imagination
ü Not possible of complex and immaterial things
2. ABSTRACTION OF IDEA
Imagination External senses sense memory Common sense cogitative sense PERCEPT PHANTASM Agent Intellect Possible Intellect ABSTRACTED NATURE THING IDEA
External senses sense memory
Common sense cogitative sense
Agent Intellect Possible Intellect
3. PROPERTIES OF IDEA
a. Comprehension – is the set of thought elements or conceptual features contained in an idea. It is also referred to as the implication, or the connotation of the idea.
Thus, when someone asks for the meaning of a term, he expects an answer from its comprehension. E.g., What is philosophy? – a science of all things by their ultimate causes and principles as known by natural reason alone.
b. Extension – is the range or scope of individuals and classes to which idea may be applied. It is also referred to as denotation, application.
Thus, when a student asks for an example of Philosphy, he expects an answer from its extension, as Logic, Epistemology, etc.
The general law on comprehension and extension of idea is that: THE GREATER THE COMPREHENSION, THE LESS IS THE EXTENSION; AND VICE VERSA. This principle also applicable in Terms.
Spirits, minerals, plants, brutes, men
minerals, plants, brutes, men
Living material substance
plants, brutes, men
Sentient living material substance
Rational sentient living material substance