Tuesday, December 9, 2008


Logic is generally given as the first part of philosophy. This is does not mean that Logic is the easiest branch of philosophy. It is quite the contrary.

However, Logic is given in the first part of philosophical study because logic imparts the knowledge of correct inferential thinking, and philosophy makes ample use of inferential thinking. In this manner, the student of philosophy is equipped with the intellectual means for gauging and appreciating the validity of the philosophical inferences and for determining the truth of their conclusions with certainty.

On the other hand, the knowledge of logic empowers us not only to make valid inferences, but also to establish the truth of his own conclusions by way of rational demonstrations. This is not of little importance, considering that philosophy deals with abstract matters, and that in the realm of abstract matters, truth and certainty are rather elusive.


For this reason Aristotle designated logic as organon that is to say, the universal rational instrument for the acquisition of philosophical knowledge. It is also the main instrument for pushing forward the frontiers of philosophical knowledge by expanding its conclusions.

Logic is also useful and necessary for equipping the mind with “knowledgeability” for making correct inferences and determining the correctness of the inferences people make regarding abstract things and topics, as freedom, rights, social justice, etc.


The founder of logic is Aristotle; however, the actual name of logic was introduced by Zeno the Stoic. Coming from the Greek logike, it would etymologically denote a treatise on matters pertaining to thought.

Really, logic is defined as the science and art directing the very act of reason, through which man in the very act of reason proceeds orderly, easily and without error. Thus, it is commonly defined as the philosophical science of correct reasoning or inferential thinking.

Reasoning and thinking do not refer to the act of the mind proper, BUT to the mental product thereof, namely, the syllogistic argument.


Natural Logic – is the innate inclination and aptitude of the intellect for right discourse. Common sense is a natural logic.

Artificial Logic – is the doctrine which acquired through study and work and contains an ordered collection of rules, by which the intellect is directed promptly and effectively to right reasoning.


Minor Logic (Dialectics) – is based from the way according to form because it treats on, the rules after which conclusions are legitimately deduced.

Major Logic (Critics/Epistemology) – is based from the way according to form because it treats on the truth of the conclusion and furthermore, it inquires on what constitutes the truth, the ways in acquiring truth and criterion to distinguish the false from the conclusions.


Logic is commonly divided according to the three acts of the mind, which provide the different elements of the subject – matter and the different bases of the different inferential functions.

I. Apprehension, Idea, Predictability of Ideas.
II. Judgment, Enunciation, Predication of Ideas.
III. Reasoning, Argument, Inference of new predication.


This division is applicable only to the Third Part of Logic. It covers only the discussion about inferential process from the Universal to the Particular (deduction).


All TTMIST students are intelligent. (Universal)
But, Gorgonia is a student of TTMIST. (Particular)
Therefore, Gorgonia is intelligent. (particular)

And from Individuals to the Universals (induction). It is also an inadequate division of the whole science.


This bag falls, this book falls, this pen falls, this pad of paper falls.
Therefore, all material/bodily objects fall.